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Ingeniería de Alimentos

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    La higiene y el saneamiento en la industria alimentaria constituyen factores importantes para cumplir con los estándares de la calidad y la salud pública. Por ende, es imprescindible contar con normativas, infraestructura y programas adecuados para garantizar dichos principios. El objetivo de la presente publicación es guiar la implementación o mejora de programas de higiene y saneamiento en la industria alimentaria, a fin de que estos sean aceptables y eficaces frente a la autoridad sanitaria y requisitos contractuales.

     

    Este libro desarrolla la legislación alimentaria tanto nacional como internacional. Así también, identifica y detalla los procedimientos metodologías y controles aplicados para la prevención de la contaminación y de plagas. Igualmente, trata las pautas necesarias para el diseño de la infraestructura, programas y los sistemas de vigilancia y preparación del personal.

     

    La presente publicación está dirigida a pequeños y grandes empresarios de la industria alimentaria, estudiantes y profesionales de ingeniería industrial, alimentaria, pesquera, sanitaria y afines, que buscan un material completo, actualizado y preciso.

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    ÍNDICE

    Prólogo

    Introducción

    Lista de siglas y acrónimos utilizados en el texto

     

    CAPÍTULO 1.

    Legislación y normatividad aplicable

  • Legislación nacional
  • Normalización técnica
  •  

    CAPÍTULO 2.

    Enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos (ETA)

     

    CAPÍTULO 3.

    Estructuras bacterianas resistentes: biofilms o biopelículas

  • Generalidades
  • Proceso de formación de biofilms
  • Procedimiento para remover biofilms
  • Descubrimientos destacados relacionados a biofilms
  •  

    CAPÍTULO 4.

    Infraestructura, equipos y servicios

  • Generalidades
  • Diseño sanitario de equipos
  • Iluminación
  • Agua
  • Ventilación
  • Aire comprimido
  • Vapor culinario
  •  

    CAPÍTULO 5

    Prevención de la contaminación cruzada

  • Zonificación o zoning
  • Aerosoles
  •  

    CAPÍTULO 6.

    Limpieza y desinfección

  • Generalidades
  • Proceso de saneamiento
  •  

    CAPÍTULO 7.

    Control de plagas

     

    CAPÍTULO 8.

    Mantenimiento preventivo

  • Generalidades
  • Lubricantes de grado alimentario
  • Clasificación de lubricantes de grado alimentario
  •  

    CAPÍTULO 9.

    Formación del personal

     

    CAPÍTULO 10.

    Vigilancia sanitaria

  • Generalidades
  • Bioluminiscencia ATP
  • Transporte de la muestra
  • Registro e interpretación de resultados
  • Proceso de auditoría e inspección
  •  

    CAPÍTULO 11.

    Elaboración de un POE/POES

  • Generalidades
  • Desarrollo y mantenimiento de un POE/POES
  • Revisiones y actualizaciones
  •  

    CAPÍTULO 12.

    Validación de medidas de control en inocuidad alimentaria

  • Generalidades
  • Enfoques de validación
  • Peor condición o worst case
  • Etapas del proceso de validación
  • Protocolos de clasificación
  • Clasificación de instalación
  • Clasificación de la operación
  •  

    Bibliografía

    Anexo 1.

    • Lista de verificación de diseño sanitario de equipos

    Anexo 2.

    • Estudio de efectividad de un sanitizante y su uso con escobilla para uñas
    • Remoción de Escherichia coli en manos con uñas naturales o artificiales
    • Reducción de Escherichia coli en varias superficies
    • Microbiología de la limpieza y desinfección de las tablas de picar
    • Microbiología de los paños de limpieza en la cocina
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    ÍNDICE

    Prólogo

    Introducción

    Lista de siglas y acrónimos utilizados en el texto

     

    CAPÍTULO 1.

    Legislación y normatividad aplicable

  • Legislación nacional
  • Normalización técnica
  •  

    CAPÍTULO 2.

    Enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos (ETA)

     

    CAPÍTULO 3.

    Estructuras bacterianas resistentes: biofilms o biopelículas

  • Generalidades
  • Proceso de formación de biofilms
  • Procedimiento para remover biofilms
  • Descubrimientos destacados relacionados a biofilms
  •  

    CAPÍTULO 4.

    Infraestructura, equipos y servicios

  • Generalidades
  • Diseño sanitario de equipos
  • Iluminación
  • Agua
  • Ventilación
  • Aire comprimido
  • Vapor culinario
  •  

    CAPÍTULO 5

    Prevención de la contaminación cruzada

  • Zonificación o zoning
  • Aerosoles
  •  

    CAPÍTULO 6.

    Limpieza y desinfección

  • Generalidades
  • Proceso de saneamiento
  •  

    CAPÍTULO 7.

    Control de plagas

     

    CAPÍTULO 8.

    Mantenimiento preventivo

  • Generalidades
  • Lubricantes de grado alimentario
  • Clasificación de lubricantes de grado alimentario
  •  

    CAPÍTULO 9.

    Formación del personal

     

    CAPÍTULO 10.

    Vigilancia sanitaria

  • Generalidades
  • Bioluminiscencia ATP
  • Transporte de la muestra
  • Registro e interpretación de resultados
  • Proceso de auditoría e inspección
  •  

    CAPÍTULO 11.

    Elaboración de un POE/POES

  • Generalidades
  • Desarrollo y mantenimiento de un POE/POES
  • Revisiones y actualizaciones
  •  

    CAPÍTULO 12.

    Validación de medidas de control en inocuidad alimentaria

  • Generalidades
  • Enfoques de validación
  • Peor condición o worst case
  • Etapas del proceso de validación
  • Protocolos de clasificación
  • Clasificación de instalación
  • Clasificación de la operación
  •  

    Bibliografía

    Anexo 1.

    • Lista de verificación de diseño sanitario de equipos

    Anexo 2.

    • Estudio de efectividad de un sanitizante y su uso con escobilla para uñas
    • Remoción de Escherichia coli en manos con uñas naturales o artificiales
    • Reducción de Escherichia coli en varias superficies
    • Microbiología de la limpieza y desinfección de las tablas de picar
    • Microbiología de los paños de limpieza en la cocina
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    Precio de venta con descuento:
    Descuentos Universilibros10%
    Precio
    Antes:
    COP
    $ 54.000
    Ahora:
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    Descuento: COP $ -5.400
    Precio / kg:
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    El presente libro es un material didáctico que proporciona de manera sencilla y concisa los conocimientos específicos de la leche como materia prima, las características nutricionales, los tipos de clasificación y los beneficios. Presenta las principales técnicas y alternativas de elaboración para el procesamiento de la leche como el queso, el yogur, la mantequilla, el helado y el manjar blanco. Asimismo, brinda las pautas económicas básicas para poner en marcha un negocio agroindustrial lechero.

     

    El objetivo de la presente publicación es acompañar, orientar e instruir al lector paso a paso, en el proceso de transformación de la leche, asimismo para verificar el avance del aprendizaje se presenta al término de cada capítulo un cuestionario de autoevaluación.

     

    Este material está dirigido a estudiantes, ganaderos, productores agroindustriales y público en general que se interese en la elaboración, producción y comercialización de los derivados lácteos, y a aquellos que desean emprender en el ámbito de la industria de los lácteos.

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    ÍNDICE

    Introducción

    Capítulo 1. La leche

    • La leche
    • Historia del consumo de leche
    • Principales animales productores de leche
    • Composición de la leche
    • Clasificación de la leche
    • Beneficios y desventajas del consumo
    • Situación nacional de la producción de leche
    • Situación mundial de la producción de leche
    • Producción lácteos

    Cuestionario de autoevaluación n°1

     

    Capítulo 2. Calidad de la leche

    • Calidad de la leche
    • Evaluación sensorial de la leche de buena calidad
    • Análisis fisicoquímico de rutina

    Cuestionario de autoevaluación n°2

     

    Capítulo 3. El queso

    • El queso
    • Historia de la elaboración del queso
    • Tipos de queso
    • Valor nutritivo del queso
    • Beneficios y desventajas del consumo del queso
    • Materiales, equipos e ingredientes usados en la elaboración del queso
    • Proceso de elaboración del queso
    • Utilización del queso

    Cuestionario de autoevaluación n°3

     

    Capítulo 4. El yogur

    • El yogur
    • Historia de la elaboración del yogur
    • Tipos de yogur
    • Clasificación del yogur
    • Valor nutricional del yogur
    • Los probióticos
    • Beneficios y desventajas del consumo de yogur
    • Materiales, equipos e ingredientes usados en la elaboración del yogur
    • Proceso de elaboración del yogur
    • Utilización del yogur

    Cuestionario de autoevaluación n°4

     

    Capítulo 5. El helado

    • Helados
    • Historia del helado
    • Clasificación del helado
    • Valor nutritivo del helado
    • Beneficios y desventajas del consumo de helado
    • Materiales, equipos e ingredientes usados en la elaboración de helados
    • Proceso de elaboración del helado
    • Utilización del helado

    Cuestionario de autoevaluación n°5

     

    Capítulo 6. La mantequilla

    • La mantequilla
    • Historia de la mantequilla
    • Clasificación de la mantequilla
    • Valor nutritivo del helado
    • Beneficios y desventajas del consumo de mantequilla
    • Materiales, equipos e ingredientes usados en la elaboración de la mantequilla
    • Elaboración de la nata
    • Proceso de elaboración de la mantequilla

    Cuestionario de autoevaluación n°6

     

    Capítulo 7. El manjar blanco

    • El manjar blanco
    • Historia del manjar blanco
    • Clasificación del manjar blanco
    • Valor nutritivo del manjar blanco
    • Materiales, equipos e ingredientes usados en la elaboración del manjar blanco
    • Proceso de elaboración del manjar blanco
    • Utilización del manjar blanco

    Cuestionario de autoevaluación n°7

     

    Capítulo 8. Manejo ambiental

    • El medio ambiente
    • Gestión ambiental
    • Sistema de gestión ambiental
    • Impacto ambiental de la industria lechera
    • Diagnóstico ambiental
    • Análisis de impacto ambiental
    • Mitigación de impactos

    Cuestionario de autoevaluación n°8

     

    Capítulo 9. Plan de negocios

    • La industria láctea
    • Inversión del proyecto
    • Presupuesto de ingresos y egresos
    • Rentabilidad

    Cuestionario de autoevaluación n°9

     

    Prueba de dominio psicomotor (desempeño)

    Glosario

    Anexos

    Referencias bibliográficas

    Solucionario de los cuestionarios

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    ÍNDICE

    Introducción

    Capítulo 1. La leche

    • La leche
    • Historia del consumo de leche
    • Principales animales productores de leche
    • Composición de la leche
    • Clasificación de la leche
    • Beneficios y desventajas del consumo
    • Situación nacional de la producción de leche
    • Situación mundial de la producción de leche
    • Producción lácteos

    Cuestionario de autoevaluación n°1

     

    Capítulo 2. Calidad de la leche

    • Calidad de la leche
    • Evaluación sensorial de la leche de buena calidad
    • Análisis fisicoquímico de rutina

    Cuestionario de autoevaluación n°2

     

    Capítulo 3. El queso

    • El queso
    • Historia de la elaboración del queso
    • Tipos de queso
    • Valor nutritivo del queso
    • Beneficios y desventajas del consumo del queso
    • Materiales, equipos e ingredientes usados en la elaboración del queso
    • Proceso de elaboración del queso
    • Utilización del queso

    Cuestionario de autoevaluación n°3

     

    Capítulo 4. El yogur

    • El yogur
    • Historia de la elaboración del yogur
    • Tipos de yogur
    • Clasificación del yogur
    • Valor nutricional del yogur
    • Los probióticos
    • Beneficios y desventajas del consumo de yogur
    • Materiales, equipos e ingredientes usados en la elaboración del yogur
    • Proceso de elaboración del yogur
    • Utilización del yogur

    Cuestionario de autoevaluación n°4

     

    Capítulo 5. El helado

    • Helados
    • Historia del helado
    • Clasificación del helado
    • Valor nutritivo del helado
    • Beneficios y desventajas del consumo de helado
    • Materiales, equipos e ingredientes usados en la elaboración de helados
    • Proceso de elaboración del helado
    • Utilización del helado

    Cuestionario de autoevaluación n°5

     

    Capítulo 6. La mantequilla

    • La mantequilla
    • Historia de la mantequilla
    • Clasificación de la mantequilla
    • Valor nutritivo del helado
    • Beneficios y desventajas del consumo de mantequilla
    • Materiales, equipos e ingredientes usados en la elaboración de la mantequilla
    • Elaboración de la nata
    • Proceso de elaboración de la mantequilla

    Cuestionario de autoevaluación n°6

     

    Capítulo 7. El manjar blanco

    • El manjar blanco
    • Historia del manjar blanco
    • Clasificación del manjar blanco
    • Valor nutritivo del manjar blanco
    • Materiales, equipos e ingredientes usados en la elaboración del manjar blanco
    • Proceso de elaboración del manjar blanco
    • Utilización del manjar blanco

    Cuestionario de autoevaluación n°7

     

    Capítulo 8. Manejo ambiental

    • El medio ambiente
    • Gestión ambiental
    • Sistema de gestión ambiental
    • Impacto ambiental de la industria lechera
    • Diagnóstico ambiental
    • Análisis de impacto ambiental
    • Mitigación de impactos

    Cuestionario de autoevaluación n°8

     

    Capítulo 9. Plan de negocios

    • La industria láctea
    • Inversión del proyecto
    • Presupuesto de ingresos y egresos
    • Rentabilidad

    Cuestionario de autoevaluación n°9

     

    Prueba de dominio psicomotor (desempeño)

    Glosario

    Anexos

    Referencias bibliográficas

    Solucionario de los cuestionarios

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    Este trabajo es el resultado de la experiencia en el área de la tecnología de leches obtenida a través de varios años y recopilada para beneficio del pequeño y mediano empresario, con el fin de contribuir al desarrollo y progreso de la industria láctea de Colombia.

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    CONTENIDO

    PRÓLOGO

    CAPÍTULO 1

    LA LECHE CRUDA, PRODUCCIÓN, COMPOSICIÓN Y EVALUACIÓN

      1. Producción, secreción y eyección de la leche
      2. Definición y composición de la leche
      3. Componentes de la leche y sus propiedades fisicoquímicas
      4. Legislación nacional para la leche cruda
      5. Toma de muestras
      6. Materiales, equipos y reactivos necesarios para el análisis físico-químico
      7. Análisis sensorial, físico-químico y microbiológico

     

    CAPÍTULO 2

    PROCESO DE PASTEURIZACIÓN

    2.1 Almacenamiento y transporte de la leche cruda

    2.2 Operaciones en la planta pasteurizadora

    2.3 Técnicas de filtración tangencial

    2.4 Efecto del calentamiento sobre los componentes de la leche

    2.5 Efecto del enfriamiento sobre los componentes de la leche

     

    CAPÍTULO 3

    LECHES SABORIZADAS

    3.1 Definición

    3.2 Características físico-químicas y microbiológicas de la leche saborizada

    3.3 Elaboración de leche saborizada y/o achocolatada

     

    CAPÍTULO 4

    LIMPIEZA, DESINFECCIÓN Y B.P.M. EN PLANTAS LÁCTEAS

    4.1 Limpieza

    4.2 Desinfección

    4.3 Plan general de higiene y desinfección

    4.4 Buenas prácticas de manufactura en alimentos

    4.5 Registro sanitario

     

    CAPÍTULO 5

    CULTIVOS LÁCTICOS

    5.1 Definición

    5.2 Funciones de los cultivos

    5.3 Clases de los cultivos

    5.4 Principales bacterias utilizadas en la industria láctea

     

    CAPÍTULO 6

    LECHES FERMENTADAS

    6.1 Definición

    6.2 Propiedades de las leches fermentadas

    6.3 Leches fermentadas con bacterias probióticas y sus funciones

    6.4 Leches fermentadas dietéticas y cálculo del contenido calórico

    6.5 Tecnología general para la elaboración de leches fermentadas

    6.6 Materiales, reactivos y equipos para la elaboración y análisis de leches fermentadas

    6.7 Elaboración de Kéfir

    6.8 Elaboración de Yogurt: batido, bajo en calorías, aflanado y griego

    6.9 Elaboración del kumis

    6.10 Elaboración de queso crema

    6.11 Elaboración del Progurt o Petit Suise

    6.12 Elaboración de suero costeño

    Recomendaciones

     

    CAPÍTULO 7

    MANTEQUILLA

    7.1 Definición

    7.2 Características físico-químicas y microbiológicas de la mantequilla. Resolución 2310/86 del Ministerio de Salud

    7.3 Tecnología general para la elaboración de mantequilla

    7.4 Materiales, reactivos y equipos para la elaboración y análisis de la crema y mantequilla

    7.5 Elaboración de mantequilla

    7.6 Definición crema de leche y crema chantilly

    7.7 Características físico-químicas y microbiológicas de la crema de leche. Resolución 2310/86 del Ministerio de Salud

    7.8 Elaboración de la crema chantilly

    7.9 Elaboración de crema agria o sour cream

    Recomendaciones

     

    CAPÍTULO 8

    QUESOS FRESCOS Y MADURADOS

    8.1 Definición

    8.2 Generalidades

    8.2 Clasificación

    8.4 Características físico-químicas y microbiológicas de los quesos frescos

    8.5 Principios generales para la elaboración de quesos

    8.6 Tecnología general para la elaboración de quesos

    8.7 Materiales, reactivos y equipos para le elaboración y análisis de quesos

    8.8 Quesos frescos no hilados

    8.9 Quesos frescos no hilados

    Elaboración de cuajada

    Elaboración de queso campesino

    Elaboración de quesito molido antioqueño o nariñense

    Elaboración de queso costeño picado

    8.9 Quesos frescos hilados

    Elaboración de queso doble crema

    Elaboración de queso tipo mozzarella

    Elaboración de queso pera, quesadillo, siete cueros o queso de hija

    Elaboración de quesillo huilense

    8.10 Quesos semimadurados y madurados

    8.11 Características físico-químicas y microbiológicas de los quesos semimadurados y madurados

    8.12 defectos en quesos

    8.13 Cálculos en quesería

    8.14 El suero y sus usos

    Elaboración del queso de suero, requesón o ricota

    Elaboración de bebida hidratante

    Recomendaciones

     

    CAPÍTULO 9

    QUESO PROCESADO O FUNDIDO

    9.1 Definición

     9.2 Generalidades

    9.3 Clasificación y características físico-químicas y microbiológicas

    9.4 Materia primas utilizadas

    9.5 Tecnología general para la elaboración de queso proceso fundido

    9.6 Elaboración de queso fundido

     

    CAPÍTULO 10

    LECHES CONCENTRADAS

    10.1 Definición

    10.2 Generalidades

    10.3 Tecnología general para la elaboración de leches concentradas azucaradas

    10.4 Materiales, reactivos y equipos para la elaboración y análisis de leches concentradas azucaradas

    10.5 Leches concentradas

    Elaboración arequipe tradicional

    Elaboración arequipe con enzima

    Elaboración leche condensada azucarada

    Elaboración manjar blanco

    Elaboración panelitas blancas

    Elaboración panelitas negras

    Recomendaciones

     

    CAPÍTULO 11

    HELADOS Y POSTRES CONGELADOS

    11.1 Definición

    11.2 Generalidades

    11.3 Clasificación

    11.4 Características físico-químicas y microbiológicas

    11.5 Materias primas utilizadas

    11.6 Tecnología general para la elaboración de helados

    11.7 Materiales, reactivos y equipos para la elaboración de helados y postres congelados

    11.8 Elaboración de la premezcla o mix

    11.9 Elaboración del helado

    11.10 Clasificación de postres congelados

    11.11 Materias primas utilizadas en la elaboración de mousse y flan

    11.12 Composición de los postres

    11.13 Elaboración del flan de leche

    11.14 Elaboración del mousse

     

    CAPÍTULO 12

    DISEÑO DE UNA PLANTA LÁCTEA ARTESANAL. MATERIALES Y EQUIPOS

    12.1 Diseño planta y distribución de equipos

    12.2 Principales materiales, equipos y reactivos para una microempresa de lácteos

     

    BIBLIOGRAFÍA

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    CONTENIDO

    PRÓLOGO

    CAPÍTULO 1

    LA LECHE CRUDA, PRODUCCIÓN, COMPOSICIÓN Y EVALUACIÓN

      1. Producción, secreción y eyección de la leche
      2. Definición y composición de la leche
      3. Componentes de la leche y sus propiedades fisicoquímicas
      4. Legislación nacional para la leche cruda
      5. Toma de muestras
      6. Materiales, equipos y reactivos necesarios para el análisis físico-químico
      7. Análisis sensorial, físico-químico y microbiológico

     

    CAPÍTULO 2

    PROCESO DE PASTEURIZACIÓN

    2.1 Almacenamiento y transporte de la leche cruda

    2.2 Operaciones en la planta pasteurizadora

    2.3 Técnicas de filtración tangencial

    2.4 Efecto del calentamiento sobre los componentes de la leche

    2.5 Efecto del enfriamiento sobre los componentes de la leche

     

    CAPÍTULO 3

    LECHES SABORIZADAS

    3.1 Definición

    3.2 Características físico-químicas y microbiológicas de la leche saborizada

    3.3 Elaboración de leche saborizada y/o achocolatada

     

    CAPÍTULO 4

    LIMPIEZA, DESINFECCIÓN Y B.P.M. EN PLANTAS LÁCTEAS

    4.1 Limpieza

    4.2 Desinfección

    4.3 Plan general de higiene y desinfección

    4.4 Buenas prácticas de manufactura en alimentos

    4.5 Registro sanitario

     

    CAPÍTULO 5

    CULTIVOS LÁCTICOS

    5.1 Definición

    5.2 Funciones de los cultivos

    5.3 Clases de los cultivos

    5.4 Principales bacterias utilizadas en la industria láctea

     

    CAPÍTULO 6

    LECHES FERMENTADAS

    6.1 Definición

    6.2 Propiedades de las leches fermentadas

    6.3 Leches fermentadas con bacterias probióticas y sus funciones

    6.4 Leches fermentadas dietéticas y cálculo del contenido calórico

    6.5 Tecnología general para la elaboración de leches fermentadas

    6.6 Materiales, reactivos y equipos para la elaboración y análisis de leches fermentadas

    6.7 Elaboración de Kéfir

    6.8 Elaboración de Yogurt: batido, bajo en calorías, aflanado y griego

    6.9 Elaboración del kumis

    6.10 Elaboración de queso crema

    6.11 Elaboración del Progurt o Petit Suise

    6.12 Elaboración de suero costeño

    Recomendaciones

     

    CAPÍTULO 7

    MANTEQUILLA

    7.1 Definición

    7.2 Características físico-químicas y microbiológicas de la mantequilla. Resolución 2310/86 del Ministerio de Salud

    7.3 Tecnología general para la elaboración de mantequilla

    7.4 Materiales, reactivos y equipos para la elaboración y análisis de la crema y mantequilla

    7.5 Elaboración de mantequilla

    7.6 Definición crema de leche y crema chantilly

    7.7 Características físico-químicas y microbiológicas de la crema de leche. Resolución 2310/86 del Ministerio de Salud

    7.8 Elaboración de la crema chantilly

    7.9 Elaboración de crema agria o sour cream

    Recomendaciones

     

    CAPÍTULO 8

    QUESOS FRESCOS Y MADURADOS

    8.1 Definición

    8.2 Generalidades

    8.2 Clasificación

    8.4 Características físico-químicas y microbiológicas de los quesos frescos

    8.5 Principios generales para la elaboración de quesos

    8.6 Tecnología general para la elaboración de quesos

    8.7 Materiales, reactivos y equipos para le elaboración y análisis de quesos

    8.8 Quesos frescos no hilados

    8.9 Quesos frescos no hilados

    Elaboración de cuajada

    Elaboración de queso campesino

    Elaboración de quesito molido antioqueño o nariñense

    Elaboración de queso costeño picado

    8.9 Quesos frescos hilados

    Elaboración de queso doble crema

    Elaboración de queso tipo mozzarella

    Elaboración de queso pera, quesadillo, siete cueros o queso de hija

    Elaboración de quesillo huilense

    8.10 Quesos semimadurados y madurados

    8.11 Características físico-químicas y microbiológicas de los quesos semimadurados y madurados

    8.12 defectos en quesos

    8.13 Cálculos en quesería

    8.14 El suero y sus usos

    Elaboración del queso de suero, requesón o ricota

    Elaboración de bebida hidratante

    Recomendaciones

     

    CAPÍTULO 9

    QUESO PROCESADO O FUNDIDO

    9.1 Definición

     9.2 Generalidades

    9.3 Clasificación y características físico-químicas y microbiológicas

    9.4 Materia primas utilizadas

    9.5 Tecnología general para la elaboración de queso proceso fundido

    9.6 Elaboración de queso fundido

     

    CAPÍTULO 10

    LECHES CONCENTRADAS

    10.1 Definición

    10.2 Generalidades

    10.3 Tecnología general para la elaboración de leches concentradas azucaradas

    10.4 Materiales, reactivos y equipos para la elaboración y análisis de leches concentradas azucaradas

    10.5 Leches concentradas

    Elaboración arequipe tradicional

    Elaboración arequipe con enzima

    Elaboración leche condensada azucarada

    Elaboración manjar blanco

    Elaboración panelitas blancas

    Elaboración panelitas negras

    Recomendaciones

     

    CAPÍTULO 11

    HELADOS Y POSTRES CONGELADOS

    11.1 Definición

    11.2 Generalidades

    11.3 Clasificación

    11.4 Características físico-químicas y microbiológicas

    11.5 Materias primas utilizadas

    11.6 Tecnología general para la elaboración de helados

    11.7 Materiales, reactivos y equipos para la elaboración de helados y postres congelados

    11.8 Elaboración de la premezcla o mix

    11.9 Elaboración del helado

    11.10 Clasificación de postres congelados

    11.11 Materias primas utilizadas en la elaboración de mousse y flan

    11.12 Composición de los postres

    11.13 Elaboración del flan de leche

    11.14 Elaboración del mousse

     

    CAPÍTULO 12

    DISEÑO DE UNA PLANTA LÁCTEA ARTESANAL. MATERIALES Y EQUIPOS

    12.1 Diseño planta y distribución de equipos

    12.2 Principales materiales, equipos y reactivos para una microempresa de lácteos

     

    BIBLIOGRAFÍA

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    Precio de venta con descuento:
    Descuentos Universilibros10%
    Precio
    Antes:
    COP
    $ 60.000
    Ahora:
    COP
    $ 54.000
    Descuento: COP $ -6.000
    Precio / kg:
    Producto no disponible.
    Puede solicitar ser notificado cuando tengamos disponibilidad en la tienda.
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    Este manual contiene varias prácticas de laboratorio que fueron realizadas en el Programa de Ingeniería de Alimentos de la Facultad de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano, UJTL. Los autores de cada capítulo se han propuesto presentar una práctica comprensible para los estudiantes de ingeniería, con objetivos pedagógicos claros y concretos y con experimentaciones fáciles de reproducir en cualquier laboratorio o planta piloto de una institución académica. No se trata pues, de un trabajo bibliográfico realizado únicamente sobre la base de buenas fuentes documentales. La elaboración de este trabajo ha ocupado, además, muchas horas de laboratorio para poner a punto las técnicas descritas, ensayando varias veces y ajustando protocolos, registrando los errores de las pruebas, originales, informando posibles soluciones y recurriendo a pares evaluadores para contrastar lo escrito. El objetivo de este libro es ofrecer una guía básica para las prácticas en ingeniería de alimentos que permita desarrollar habilidades cuantitativas específicas, útiles en un gran número de entornos de procesamiento o manufactura de alimentos.

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    Este manual contiene varias prácticas de laboratorio que fueron realizadas en el Programa de Ingeniería de Alimentos de la Facultad de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano, UJTL. Los autores de cada capítulo se han propuesto presentar una práctica comprensible para los estudiantes de ingeniería, con objetivos...

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    Prólogo

    Aplicación del diseño experimental en pruebas de laboratorio en ingeniería de alimentos

    Medición de la viscosidad dinámica de fluidos alimenticios traslúcidos utilizando un viscosímetro de caída de bola

    Evaluación de parámetros texturales de frutas

    Evaluación sensorial de alimentos: pruebas básicas

    Humedad de equilibrio higroscópico

    Determinación de la curva de secado de alimentos

    Secado de productos agrícolas 

    Determinación del coeficiente global de transferencia de calor en el procesamiento de un alimento fluido en un tanque agitado

    Cultivo de hongos comestibles pleurotus ostreatus sobre residuos agro industriales

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    Prólogo

    Aplicación del diseño experimental en pruebas de laboratorio en ingeniería de alimentos

    Medición de la viscosidad dinámica de fluidos alimenticios traslúcidos utilizando un viscosímetro de caída de bola

    Evaluación de parámetros texturales de frutas

    Evaluación sensorial de alimentos: pruebas básicas

    Humedad de equilibrio higroscópico

    Determinación de la curva de secado de alimentos

    Secado de productos agrícolas 

    Determinación del coeficiente global de transferencia de calor en el procesamiento de un alimento fluido en un tanque agitado

    Cultivo de hongos comestibles pleurotus ostreatus sobre residuos agro industriales

    Producción de celulasas por fermentación en fase líquida

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    Precio de venta con descuento:
    Descuentos Universilibros10%
    Precio
    Antes:
    COP
    $ 11.000
    Ahora:
    COP
    $ 9.900
    Descuento: COP $ -1.100
    Precio / kg:

    Modulo de sistemas de calidad | María Victoria Rozo de Botero

    Isbn: 958-97660-2-1 | Año: 2005 | Páginas: 64
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    Los conocimientos que se aportan brindan, primero, unos conceptos fundamentales sobre el desarrollo de los sistemas de calidad y su filosofía, así como los principios que la apoyan como teoría; en segundo lugar, los estudiantes tendrán el conocimiento de la administración de calidad y de los costos de calidad; en tercer lugar, la aplicación dentro de los procesos de calidad de productos, dentro del contexto de la NTC-ISO 9001: 2000 y servicios del sistema HACCP, como una herramienta dentro de las buenas prácticas de manufactura para, finalmente, hacer una aproximación a la integración de los diferentes sistemas de calidad vigentes en el país y de aplicación en el área específica de alimentos.

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    Precio de venta con descuento:
    Descuentos Universilibros10%
    Precio
    Antes:
    COP
    $ 21.500
    Ahora:
    COP
    $ 19.350
    Descuento: COP $ -2.150
    Precio / kg:
    Producto no disponible.
    Puede solicitar ser notificado cuando tengamos disponibilidad en la tienda.
    Notificarme
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        [product_desc] => 

    El manipulador de alimentos necesita conocer el proceso de preparación y conservación de alimentos y respetar las exigencias culinarias. Gastronómicas, sanitarias y nutritivas que permiten que el alimento llegue al consumidor en las mejores condiciones de calidad e inocuidad. Por esta razón y tratando de mejorar el nivel de los profesionales de este sector se exponen, a través de este manual, de forma breve y asequible una serie de conceptos básicos. Muchos de ellos son ya conocidos y respetados, pero otros aportan nuevos conocimientos o, en último término, confirman lo que ya se sabía y se estaba haciendo. La adecuada manipulación de los alimentos incide directamente sobre la inocuidad del producto y la salud de los consumidores, por ello, el personal que trabaja en el área de alimentos, en cualquiera de sus modalidades, tiene ante sí la grave responsabilidad de protegerla, por medio de una manipulación cuidadosa. Para que esto sea una realidad se deben desarrollar: Conocimientos en la materia objeto de su trabajo: el manejo y la calidad de los alimentos. Actitudes de conducta personal que beneficien su función: higiene personal y organización del trabajo. Sentido de responsabilidad hacia los demás por la importancia del servicio que se presta, en especial aquello que tiene que ver con la satisfacción del cliente. Este manual tiene también, entre sus objetivos, el de estimular «el buen hacer» de estos profesionales, en un tema de tanta trascendencia sanitaria y social como la alimentación. Además propone mejorar la calidad de un servicio, la inocuidad de los alimentos y colaborar en la protección de la salud de los ciudadanos.La adecuada manipulación de los alimentos incide directamente sobre la inocuidad del producto y la salud de los consumidores, por ello, el personal que trabaja en el área de alimentos, en cualquiera de sus modalidades, tiene ante sí la grave responsabilidad de protegerla, por medio de una manipulación cuidadosa. Para que esto sea una realidad se deben desarrollar: Conocimientos en la materia objeto de su trabajo: el manejo y la calidad de los alimentos. Actitudes de conducta personal que beneficien su función: higiene personal y organización del trabajo. Sentido de responsabilidad hacia los demás por la importancia del servicio que se presta, en especial aquello que tiene que ver con la satisfacción del cliente. Este manual tiene también, entre sus objetivos, el de estimular «el buen hacer» de estos profesionales, en un tema de tanta trascendencia sanitaria y social como la alimentación. Además propone mejorar la calidad de un servicio, la inocuidad de los alimentos y colaborar en la protección de la salud de los ciudadanos.Este manual tiene también, entre sus objetivos, el de estimular «el buen hacer» de estos profesionales, en un tema de tanta trascendencia sanitaria y social como la alimentación. Además propone mejorar la calidad de un servicio, la inocuidad de los alimentos y colaborar en la protección de la salud de los ciudadanos.

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    El manipulador de alimentos necesita conocer el proceso de preparación y conservación de alimentos y respetar las exigencias culinarias. Gastronómicas, sanitarias y nutritivas que permiten que el alimento llegue al consumidor en las mejores condiciones de calidad e inocuidad. Por esta razón y tratando de mejorar el nivel de los profesionales de este sector...

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    Precio de venta con descuento:
    Descuentos Universilibros10%
    Precio
    Antes:
    COP
    $ 15.000
    Ahora:
    COP
    $ 13.500
    Descuento: COP $ -1.500
    Precio / kg:
    Producto no disponible.
    Puede solicitar ser notificado cuando tengamos disponibilidad en la tienda.
    Notificarme