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    Mediante el uso del lenguaje los hablantes se constituyen como sujetos individuales. De esta manera diferencian su yo del vos o de sus interlocutores y del él correspondiente al tercero excluido del diálogo. El lenguaje sólo se realiza a través de diferentes dialectos que identifican y distinguen comunidades de hablantes. Estos dialectos, adquiridos en los primeros años de vida, ofrecen –a través del léxico, las reglas gramaticales y los sistemas de clasificación implícitos– una visión completa del mundo en el que nos movemos.

    Sin embargo, la absoluta disponibilidad de recursos lingüísticos es solo una ilusión. Dado que vivimos junto a otras personas, estamos sujetos a las reglas de cada situación, restringen la libertad de utilizar las formas de nuestro dialecto. Es así como el uso lingüístico ofrece posibilidades y al mismo tiempo acota la actividad comunicativa.

    Los hablantes de los diferentes dialectos no son todos iguales: pertenecen a distintos grupos y clases sociales, tienen diversas edades, disímiles intereses, poseen diferentes posibilidades de acceso a los productos del trabajo social. Esto hace que los dialectos presenten variación. Los diferentes grupos luchan por imponer valoraciones específicas a las formas lingüísticas. Esto hace que los dialectos también cambien en el tiempo. No hay dialectos estáticos: acompañan y favorecen las crisis y los cambios de una comunidad.

    Sujetos de la lengua traza un recorrido que es a la vez una introducción al estudio de estos fenómenos y un programa de investigación para la sociolingüística.

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    Mediante el uso del lenguaje los hablantes se constituyen como sujetos individuales. De esta manera diferencian su yo del vos o de sus interlocutores y del él correspondiente al tercero excluido del diálogo. El lenguaje sólo se realiza a través de diferentes dialectos que identifican y distinguen comunidades de hablantes. Estos...

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    Introducción

    1. Un programa de investigación sociolingüística

    Signos e ideología

    La metáfora estructural marxista

    Signos y palabras

    Relaciones entre base y superestructura

    El lugar de los signos

    Tema, sociedad, heterogeneidad

    Uso de los signos y dominación

    Diferencias con Saussure

    Interdiscurso

    Diferencias con Von Humboldt y los románticos alemanes

    Comprensión

    Interrelación entre valoración y significación

    Algunas observaciones y proyecciones

     

    Nota

    Bibliografía

     

    2. ¿Qué hicimos los sociolingüistas?

    Lenguaje en situación

    Algo de la historia académica

    El contexto

    Diferencias de enfoque en el objeto de estudio

    Demostraciones empíricas

    Cuando el uso diferencia a los hablantes

    Discurso

     

    Nota

    Bibliografía

     

    3. El problema de definir el contexto. La etnografía de la comunicación

    Hablando de los componentes del evento

    Respondiendo a preguntas I: la comunidad del habla

    Respondiendo a preguntas II: cuestiones metodológicas

    Respondiendo a preguntas III: lo ético y lo émico

    El agua no siempre es agua: la hipótesis Sapir-Whorf

    Whorf, el hopi y las lenguas europeas

    La competencia comunicativa

     

    Nota

    Bibliografía

    Lecturas complementarias

     

    4. Labov y el método cuantitativo

    El origen académico del término sociolinguistica

    Consecuencias del hallazgo

    Ruptura de la dicotomía estudios sincrónicos-estudios diacrónicos

    Factores de cambio

     

    Nota

    Bibliografía

     

    5. El uso cotidiano de la lengua. La conversación

    Un poco de historia

    Las reglas de la conversación

    Las superposiciones

    ¿Qué hay “dentro” de una conversación?

    Problemas, siempre problemas

    Conversaciones no tan espontaneas

     

    Notas

    Bibliografía

     

    6. ¿Quién habla cuando hablamos? La enunciación

    Precisiones, conceptos, definiciones

    Nuevos supuestos, nuevas teorías

    Algunas precisiones sobre los nuevos conceptos

    ¿Quién habla? Un sujeto, muchos sujetos

    A modo de cierre

     

    Notas

    Bibliografía

    Lecturas complementarias

     

    7. Cuando las lenguas se encuentran. Algunos problemas empíricos

    Un problema de enfoques

    La diglosia y el multilingüismo social

    La gestión institucional del multilingüismo

    Algunos ejemplos concretos

    Multilingüismo social: entre el déficit social y la diferencia sociocultural

    El multilingüismo como recurso significante

    Del multilingüismo social a la mezcla de lenguas: el caso de los pidgin y las lenguas criollas

     

    Bibliografía

     

    8. Decir y poder decir

    ¿Cómo se llama la nena?

    Una libertad restringida

    Algunas explicaciones posibles

    Otra vez los contextos

    El concepto de red

    La acción comunicativa

     

    Nota

    Bibliografía

     

    9. Hacia una crítica de las formas lingüísticas

    El resbaladizo camino de la crítica

    Fundamentos cognitivos de la lingüística crítica

    Versiones sobre el mundo

    Un esquema para el análisis

    Nombrar, clasificar, evaluar

    A modo de cierre

     

    Notas

    Bibliografía

    Lecturas complementarias

     

    10. Balance y perspectivas

    Comunicación

    Balance

    Perspectivas

     

    Bibliografía

     

    Cuadro integrador

    Bibliografía de consulta

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    Introducción

    1. Un programa de investigación sociolingüística

    Signos e ideología

    La metáfora estructural marxista

    Signos y palabras

    Relaciones entre base y superestructura

    El lugar de los signos

    Tema, sociedad, heterogeneidad

    Uso de los signos y dominación

    Diferencias con Saussure

    Interdiscurso

    Diferencias con Von Humboldt y los románticos alemanes

    Comprensión

    Interrelación entre valoración y significación

    Algunas observaciones y proyecciones

     

    Nota

    Bibliografía

     

    2. ¿Qué hicimos los sociolingüistas?

    Lenguaje en situación

    Algo de la historia académica

    El contexto

    Diferencias de enfoque en el objeto de estudio

    Demostraciones empíricas

    Cuando el uso diferencia a los hablantes

    Discurso

     

    Nota

    Bibliografía

     

    3. El problema de definir el contexto. La etnografía de la comunicación

    Hablando de los componentes del evento

    Respondiendo a preguntas I: la comunidad del habla

    Respondiendo a preguntas II: cuestiones metodológicas

    Respondiendo a preguntas III: lo ético y lo émico

    El agua no siempre es agua: la hipótesis Sapir-Whorf

    Whorf, el hopi y las lenguas europeas

    La competencia comunicativa

     

    Nota

    Bibliografía

    Lecturas complementarias

     

    4. Labov y el método cuantitativo

    El origen académico del término sociolinguistica

    Consecuencias del hallazgo

    Ruptura de la dicotomía estudios sincrónicos-estudios diacrónicos

    Factores de cambio

     

    Nota

    Bibliografía

     

    5. El uso cotidiano de la lengua. La conversación

    Un poco de historia

    Las reglas de la conversación

    Las superposiciones

    ¿Qué hay “dentro” de una conversación?

    Problemas, siempre problemas

    Conversaciones no tan espontaneas

     

    Notas

    Bibliografía

     

    6. ¿Quién habla cuando hablamos? La enunciación

    Precisiones, conceptos, definiciones

    Nuevos supuestos, nuevas teorías

    Algunas precisiones sobre los nuevos conceptos

    ¿Quién habla? Un sujeto, muchos sujetos

    A modo de cierre

     

    Notas

    Bibliografía

    Lecturas complementarias

     

    7. Cuando las lenguas se encuentran. Algunos problemas empíricos

    Un problema de enfoques

    La diglosia y el multilingüismo social

    La gestión institucional del multilingüismo

    Algunos ejemplos concretos

    Multilingüismo social: entre el déficit social y la diferencia sociocultural

    El multilingüismo como recurso significante

    Del multilingüismo social a la mezcla de lenguas: el caso de los pidgin y las lenguas criollas

     

    Bibliografía

     

    8. Decir y poder decir

    ¿Cómo se llama la nena?

    Una libertad restringida

    Algunas explicaciones posibles

    Otra vez los contextos

    El concepto de red

    La acción comunicativa

     

    Nota

    Bibliografía

     

    9. Hacia una crítica de las formas lingüísticas

    El resbaladizo camino de la crítica

    Fundamentos cognitivos de la lingüística crítica

    Versiones sobre el mundo

    Un esquema para el análisis

    Nombrar, clasificar, evaluar

    A modo de cierre

     

    Notas

    Bibliografía

    Lecturas complementarias

     

    10. Balance y perspectivas

    Comunicación

    Balance

    Perspectivas

     

    Bibliografía

     

    Cuadro integrador

    Bibliografía de consulta

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